Informative — history

What You Need to Know about Cinco de Mayo

What You Need to Know about Cinco de Mayo 0

Cinco de Mayo is here again. It is celebrated every 5th of May in the United States - chance to celebrate Mexican culture and heritage, and an opportunity for some people to indulge in margaritas. But ever wondered how it came about or what it is?

Independence Day: The History 0

Independence Day: The HistoryIndependence Day commemorates our independence 241 years ago on July 4, 1776 1 as we declared ourselves a sovereign nation and no longer a colony of the British Empire.1
We've celebrated July 4th as a holiday since 1941, but the tradition of celebrating Independence Day dates back to the 18th century during the American revolution.2
Early July bustles with travel and vacation, as people get ready for the famous three day weekend.1 July 4th is usually characterized by parades, fireworks, family gatherings, and barbecues.2


In April 1775, the Revolutionary War started.. Initially, only few (radical) colonists wanted to fight for independence from Britain; however, the hostility against Britain greatly increased by early 1776, and as the dissatisfaction and restlessness grew, most colonists wanted independence.2
Because of having to pay taxes to England without any representation in Parliament (among other things), the colonists cried out for independence throughout the 13 colonies. When reports of dissatisfaction and anger over the taxation without representation reached King George III, he sent British troops to quell the early signs of rebellion. But, the British failed to stop the rebellion.3
The Continental Congress met on June 7th in Philadelphia, where Richard Henry Lee, the delegate from Virginia, introduced a motion urging for the colonies’ independence. The Continental Congress decided to postpone the vote on Lee’s proposal, because a decidedly debate ensued; however, on July 2nd, the Continental Congress voted for Lee’s resolution for independence with a nearly unanimous vote. 2
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin and Robert R. Livingston - a committee appointed by the Continental Congress - drafted a formal statement justifying the break from Britain.2 Jefferson led the committee in drafting this important document that would change our history forever, 3  and the Continental Congress made few changes to the draft. Adoption of the final version happened July 4, 1776. 3 The next day, distributions of the Declaration of Independence started throughout the colonies, and the Pennsylvania Evening was the first newspaper to print this significant document, seen as the nation’s most cherished symbol of liberty.3

The Origin

The Continental Congress voted in favor of America attaining independence on July 2, 1776, and only two days later, delegates from the 13 colonies adopted the historic document and referred to it as the Declaration of Independence. Since that monumental July 4th, Americans celebrate it as the birth of America’s independence.1
Philadelphia celebrated July 4th with bonfires, ringing bells, and fireworks. Soon, the custom eventually spread to other cities and towns, and the day clamors with processions, games, military gun salutes, picnics, and fireworks.3
In the early years of celebrating the Declaration of Independence, some colonists held mock funerals for King George III - symbolizing the end monarchy in America, and the triumph of liberty. Concerts, bonfires, parades, and firing of cannons and muskets were accompanied by reading the Declaration of Independence.3
The political importance of Independence Day has faded over the years; nevertheless, July 4th remains our most significant national holiday and a constant symbol of American Patriotism. Now, the original Declaration of Independence sits in Washington D.C., a testament to the courage and far-reaching vision of our forefathers.

National anthem

The American flag prevails as a symbol of the July 4th holiday, along with "The Star Spangled Banner." Our anthem endures to this day as a special feature for every Independence Day, and as a tribute at all of our major social, sporting, and political events. Even fireworks displays explode perfectly along with the familiar strains of our national anthem. Usually the fireworks occur later in the evening at parts, town squares, or even over golf courses and lakes. But, some cities put on an extravaganza.
New York has the biggest fireworks display in the USA, held at the East River. Other states with major fireworks displays include Chicago, San Diego, Boston,San Francisco, Washington DC,and St Louis.
Even military bases celebrate with the gun salute, one each for each state: referred to as “Salute to the Union,” fired on Independence Day at noon.


Like with any celebration, food is a significant part of Independence Day: barbecues, potlucks, picnics, and family reunions. People take the opportunity, on July 4th, to gather with relatives and friends and reminisce about the past and the future, while surrounded with the wonderful patriotic red, white, and blue of our precious and wonderful country - America!
Happy Independence Day from us!
Mother Earth Products

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independence_Day_%28United_States%29
  2. http://www.history.com/topics/holidays/july-4th
  3. http://www.pbs.org/a-capitol-fourth/history/history-independence-day/
  4. http://www.military.com/independence-day/history-of-independence-day.html

History of Freeze Drying 0

History of Freeze DryingFreeze-drying, or lyophilization, is the removal of water from frozen food through a process called sublimation.1 This process is done under a vacuum and low temperatures, and the product freezing solidly during the process.2
Freeze drying removes water from the food to make it last longer. The water's vaporized through the process of sublimation, where water, in solid state, changes directly to vapor, producing a product with controllable moisture.2  It's a perfect way to preserve food, since freeze dried food products don't shrink.Freeze dried foods can be stored without cooking or refrigeration. They need no additional flavor or color modification. Freeze dried foods are also light and are ideal for space travel, camping, backpacking, and traveling.1

The Process

Freezing - the product frozen to enable low-temperature drying.
Vacuum - placed under vacuum to allow the frozen solvent to vaporize through sublimation: it doesn’t pass through the liquid phase.
Heat - applied to the frozen product to accelerate sublimation.
Condensation - low temperature enforced by the condenser plates to remove the vaporized solvent from the vacuum chamber by converting it back to a solid. This completes the process of separation. The result is a dry product.2

The History of Freeze Drying

Freeze drying origins are traced back to the ancient Peruvian Incas of the Andes in the 15th century. 2 1  They stored their crops, like potatoes, on the mountain heights above Machu Picchu. The cold mountain temperatures froze the food stores, and water gradually vaporized under low pressure because of the high mountain altitudes - freeze drying the food.3 Buddhist monks living on the sacred mountain "Koya" used this technique. They stored tofu in the mountain snow, where the high altitudes and cold winds freeze dried the tofu. 3
In 1905, Benedict and Manning created the first freeze dryer, which dried the blood tissues using a chemical pump.In 1910, Shackell modified the basic design of the Benedict and Manning pump to an electrically driven pump to create the required vacuum, instead of the displacement of air with ethyl ether used in the original design.In 1934, the US patent was issued to Elser for creating the drying equipment that replaced Shackell’s design with a cold trap chilled with dry ice.3

Modern Freeze Drying

In the 1940s during World War 2, freeze drying took on the modern method, due to the need for blood.3 The blood sent to Europe from the US for the medical treatment of wounded soldiers required refrigeration.Due to the lack of refrigeration and transport, blood supplies would spoil before arriving at their destination;1 So, more modern freeze drying techniques had to be created to preserve blood plasma, making it possible for the blood to be chemically stable without the need for refrigeration. 2
The medical community implemented freeze drying for penicillin and bone.4 They recognized freeze drying as an important technique for preservation of biological matter.1 A freeze dryer was used, and it had a large chamber for freezing and a vacuum pump for removing moisture.2 From then on, freeze drying became  a preservation technique for pharmaceuticals and food.1 Since the 1960s, over 400 different types of freeze dried foods have been produced commercially using freeze drying.2 NASA adopted this technique in 1968, and created freeze dried ice cream.
Freeze dried coffee outruns all other freeze dried products in popularity.  2  First produced in 1938 by Nestle after Brazil requested the company to help them find a solution to the coffee surplus, Nescafe, an instant coffee powder, debuted in Switzerland. It paved the way to the production of powdered food products.2
Freeze drying evolves continually. More products pop up more every year, because freeze drying's popularity has grown for a variety of different foods and flavors. They retain their natural composition, and the integrity of minerals, vitamins and other nutrients.
Mother Earth Products

  1. https://www.thoughtco.com/freeze-dried-food-4072211
  2. http://www.freeze-dry.com/2015/09/29/history-of-freeze-drying/
  3. http://www.lyotechnology.com/fd-milestones.html
  4. http://foodprocessinghistory.blogspot.co.ke/2013/07/history-of-freeze-drying-process.html